Human-Centered Computing

Department of Computer Science

Papers

Paper

Paper published in ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction

Stine, Jesper, and Mikael got their paper published in the TOCHI special issue on HBI

Stine S. Lundgaard, Jesper Kjeldskov, and Mikael Skov Abstract Human-building interaction is converging the fields of architecture and interaction design, leading to new and interesting tensions in perspectives and methodological approaches. One such tension is related to temporal constraints. Architecture and interaction design typically produce outcomes with very different lifetime expectancies and, predominantly, use methods with very different pace. As an example, fast, iterative approaches of contemporary interaction design, consisting of frequent updates and redesigns, contrasts with much slower, plan-driven and long-term vision driven approaches within architecture. One question emerging from this tension is how to meaningfully combine perspectives and approaches. One suggestion, among others, has been that interaction design methods such as participatory design can be used to heighten the involvement of inhabitants and other stakeholders in continuous adaptations of the buildings they inhabit. While an interesting proposal, we believe that methodological considerations only partly address the complexity of the tension at play from the different lifetime expectancies of buildings and interactive computer systems. Unfolding this complexity further, we therefore propose a framework of temporal constraints at three levels of abstraction: 1) rationale, 2) method, and 3) outcome. Inspired by previous work, we discuss temporal constraints in human-building interaction at these levels. We argue that designing for human-building interaction requires an understanding of temporally constrained design conventions that apply meaningfully to both the short-term and long-term.

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The SEE toolkit: How Young Adults Manage Low Self-esteem Using Personal Technologies

Jeni Paay, Helle Larsen, Heidi Nielsen Abstract While low self-esteem is treatable, there is a stigma attached to seeking treatment for it (Corrigan, 2004). Low self-esteem can make even small things, like getting out of bed, difficult and lead to more serious illnesses such as depression or eating disorders (Elmer, 2001; Harter, 1993; Oshri et al., 2017; Sowislo & Orth, 2013). To understand how young adults are currently managing their self-esteem, we conducted a study using cultural probes (Gaver et al., 1999) and interviews with 11 young adults who feel they have low self-esteem. We identify the ways in which these young people act to increase their sense of self-worth, with particular focus on how they use personal technologies, such as smartphones. The aim of the study was to understand the role that these technologies were currently playing in the lives of people with self-esteem problems, and to investigate how personal technologies might be designed specifically to help people cope with low self-esteem, and ultimately improve their self-worth. Our contribution to health informatics is the SEE (Self-estEEm) toolkit, which identifies important factors that can influence young adults when dealing with low self-esteem. The SEE toolkit can be used in the design of health support technologies for young adults who want to manage their own self-esteem The SEE toolkit can be used in the design of health support technologies for young adults who want to manage their own self- esteem problems, giving them a private, helpful and meaningful user experience.

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Interactive Technologies Helping Young Adults Manage Low Self-Esteem

Jeni Paay, Helle Larsen, Heidi Nielsen Abstract This research explores how interactive technologies can be designed to help young adults manage low self-esteem. Low self-esteem is an important issue because it can have a dramatic effect on a person’s physical and psychological health (Campbell & Lavallee, 1993; Delongis et al, 1988). Severe self-esteem problems can make simple everyday tasks, like getting out of bed, seem too difficult. If low self-esteem goes untreated, it can lead to the development of conditions such as suicidal thoughts, eating disorders, substance abuse and depression (Elmer, 2001; Harter, 1993; Oshri et al., 2017; Sowislo & Orth, 2013). Young adults in particular experience a decrease in personal self-esteem during the transition from childhood to adulthood (Oshri et al.). While these changes are slow, young people can experience short-term fluctuations in their immediate feelings of self-worth (Rosenberg, 1986). Treatment of severe self- esteem problems requires seeking professional help, however the stigma attached to this deters young people from doing so (Corrigan, 2004). Technologies can obviate this problem to some extent, by offering ways to provide health support privately and flexibly, making this kind of intervention more attractive. Technology can also tailor solutions to suit individuals, for use in their familiar environments.

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Happy Bits: Interactive Technologies Helping Young Adults with Low Self-Esteem

Jeni Paay, Heidi Nielsen, Helle Larsen, Jesper Kjeldskov Abstract How can we design digital artefacts to help young adults with low self-esteem feel happier? To gain new insights into young adult’s self-esteem problems and how we might help support them with interactive technologies, we conducted a mixed method user-centred study. We used a 6-week cultural probe study with 11 young adults, including a focus group, to understand current practices in managing self-esteem with everyday technologies. We then co-designed interactive digital artefacts for helping improve self-esteem, to deploy as technology probes with 6 young adults for four weeks. Our contribution is two-fold. Firstly, we present the Self- Esteem Technology Support (SETS) framework for informing design of interactive technologies supporting young adults in managing low self-esteem. Secondly, we propose that interactive technologies designed to help young people feel happier need to be flexible, adaptable, private, available, personalisable, and have an engaging form factor to inspire feelings of fondness toward having the device as part of their daily routines.

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Driving on Sunshine: Aligning Electric Vehicle Charging and Household Electricity Production

Michael Kvist Svangren, Rikke Hagensby Jensen, Mikael B. Skov, and Jesper Kjeldskov Abstract Electric vehicle seems to go well together with the growing societal trend of becoming more self-supplying with renewable electricity produced in the household. However, aligning household electricity production and electric vehicle charging have received little attention in HCI although both areas have been pursued separately for a number of years. In this paper, we present findings from a qualitative study that explore the potential of aligning electric vehicle charging with times where renewable electricity is being produced in the household. We present an empirical qualitative study of 5 households (19 persons) that own electric vehicles and also produce their own renewable electricity. Our findings, described in five themes, reveal that aligning charging and electricity production can be a challenge and tension exist for aligning consumption such as motivation, roles, mobility patterns, and electricity producing technology. We further discuss our findings and possible directions for future HCI research in the field.

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Paper published at Behaviour & Information Technology journal

Lefteris got his paper about aesthetic questionairs published at BIT

Lefteris Papachristos Abstract In recent years, website aesthetics has received a fair amount of attention from the HCI community. This has led to the creation of a variety of multi-item questionnaires aimed at capturing users’ aesthetic judgments. Researchers have used these questionnaires in several HCI studies to investigate the relationship between aesthetics and other evaluative constructs such as usability. However, their usefulness as evaluation tools in visual design practice remains underexplored. Lengthy multi-item questionnaires can be particularly problematic especially in studies where participants must evaluate multiple designs or when they are required to give responses repeatedly in predefined time intervals. Despite the criticism, single-item scales have been used in many past studies in which questionnaire length could be problematic. Another alternative available to practitioners/researchers are short versions of standardized multi-item questionnaires that have been created for the aesthetic evaluations of websites. In this paper, we present a study in which we compare the performance of three such condensed aesthetic questionnaires (i.e. aesthetics scale, AttrakDiff, VisAWI) during a website redesign project. The short versions of those questionnaires were used by 187 users during an evaluation of 7 alternative website designs. The questionnaires were compared on performance criteria such as reliability, validity, and predictive ability. Data analysis showed that although AttrakDiff’s overall performance was better, a considerable amount of variance in aesthetic judgment could not be accounted for by any of the questionnaires

Paper

Michael, Mikael and Jesper got their paper on the use of ride-sharing platforms accepted at CHI2018.

Passenger Trip Planning using Ride-Sharing Services

Abstract Ride-sharing can potentially address transportation challenges such as traffic congestion and air pollution by letting drivers share their cars unused capacity with a number of passengers. However, even though multiple ride-sharing services exist and HCI research has investigated various aspects of their use, we still have limited knowledge on how passengers use ride-sharing services to plan their trips. In this paper, we study how passengers use existing services to support the activity of planning a trip. We report from a qualitative study where we participated in 5 rides and conducted interviews with 19 passengers about their use and opinions towards ride-sharing services. We found that planning a ride involves comparing individual preferences across a number of services which enabled participants to support finding a trip and handle challenges such as privacy and trust. Further, we discuss these findings and their implications for future HCI research in ride-sharing

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Accepted paper for CHI’18

Designing the Desirable Smart Home: A Study of Household Experiences and Energy Consumption Impacts

Rikke Hagensby Jensen, Yolande Strengers, Jesper Kjeldskov, Larissa Nicholls, Mikael Skov Abstract Abstract: Research has shown that desirable designs shape the use and experiences people have when interacting with technology. Nevertheless, how desirability influences energy consumption is often overlooked, particularly in HCI studies evaluating the sustainability benefits of smart home technology. In this paper, we present a qualitative study with 23 Australian households who reflect on their experiences of living with smart home devices. Drawing on Nelson and Stolterman’s concept of desiderata we develop a typology of householders’ desires for the smart home and their energy implications. We structure these desires as three smart home personas: the helper, optimiser and hedonist, which align with desiderata’s three approaches to desire (reason, ethics and aesthetics). We use these insights to discuss how desirability can be used within HCI for steering design of the smart home towards sustainability

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Paper accepted at INTERACT 2017: Active Involvement of Software Developers in Usability Engineering: Two Small-Scale Case Studi

Nis and Jan Stage have co-authored a short paper that got accepted at INTERACT 2017.

Abstract The essence of usability evaluations is to produce feedback that supports the downstream utility so the interaction design can be improved and problems can be fixed. In practice, software development organizations experience several obstacles for conducting usability engineering. One suggested approach is to train and involve developers in all phases of usability activities from evaluations, to problem reporting, and making redesign proposals. Only limited work has previously investigated the impact of actively involving developers in usability engineering. In this paper, we present two small-scale case studies in which we investigate the developers’ experience of conducting usability evaluations and participating in a redesign workshop. In both case studies developers actively engaged in both activities. Per the developers, this approach supported problem understanding, severity ratings, and problem fixing. At the organizational level, we found that the attitude towards and understanding of the role of usability engineering improved. Nis Bornoe and Jan Stage. 2017. Active Involvement of Software Developers in Usability Engineering: Two Small-Scale Case Studies. Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2017. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer.

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Paper to be presented at ECIS 2017 in Portugal

On Saturday (June 10th) John will present a paper on the value positions in the Danish e-government strategies. The paper is co

Abstract Clarifying what value new information systems (IS) may help to create for government organizations and society is a central concern in the public sector. National e-government strategies present such efforts to clarify the value entailed by IS, however, what is considered valuable is influenced by value positions deeply enshrined in the traditions of public administration. We present a theory directed con-tent analysis of value positions in the national e-government strategy for Denmark published for the first time in 1994 and latest in 2016. Our comparison of the value positions in the two e-government strategies show consistency over time when looking at the ideals of professionalism, service, and efficiency. While the least dominant ideal of engagement, has declined. The 22-year timespan separating the development of these two strategies had major technological advances, but little transformational impact on Danish e-government strategies in their general value positions. We discuss how our findings contribute to previous research on values in e-government and have practical implications for working with e-government strategies. Persson, J. S., Reinwald, A. K., Skorve, E., & Nielsen, P. A. (2017). Value Positions in E-government strategies: Something is (not) changing in the state of Denmark. In Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems, Guimarães, Portugal, pp. 1-14.

Paper

Connected car paper accepted for MobileHCI 2017

Kvist, Mikael and Jesper got their paper on the connected car accepted at MobileHCI 2017

Abstract The amount of interactive digital technology in cars is increasing rapidly, and many new cars are shipped with connectivity. As a result, a new platform has emerged that holds potentials to facilitate many new and different interactions, both inside and outside the car. Within the area of HCI for cars, the focus has predominantly been on interactions with in-vehicle systems and applications of technology that is enabled through connectivity. However, we still lack in-depth empirical studies that provide details of the connected car, its use, opinions towards it, and how it integrates into people’s everyday lives. We report from a qualitative study of 13 households with connected electric cars. We present our findings in 3 themes of interaction through connectivity, updating and upgrading car software, and security and privacy. We further discuss our findings in 3 themes that might inform and inspire further mobile HCI research with the connected car. Michael K. Svangren, Mikael B. Skov, and Jesper Kjeldskov. 2017. The Connected Car: An Empirical Study of Electric Cars as Mobile Digital Devices. Accepted for inclusion in Proceedings of MobileHCI’17.

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Calming children during blood sampling paper accepted at DIS 2017

Active Involvement of Software Developers in Usability Engineering: Two Small-Scale Case Studies

Abstract Blood sampling is a common and necessary procedure in the treatment and diagnosis of a variety of diseases. However, it often results in painful and stressful experiences for children. Designed together with domain experts, Pufferfish is a breath-controlled biofeedback game technology with bespoke airflow sensor that aims to calm children during blood sampling procedures. An initial randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 20 children aged 6-11 were assigned to one of two conditions involving either passive distraction (watching a video) or active distraction using the Pufferfish prototype. We present quantitative results demonstrating the effectiveness of our active distraction technique. Together with qualitative feedback from patients, parents, and medical staff we identify key aspects impacting the acceptance of breath-based active distraction and future system refinements. Our study highlights the potential of non-pharmacological assistive technology tools to reduce fear and pain for children undergoing painful or stressful medical treatment.